...a brief history lesson! Huzzah!
(Actually, I had to look most of this up so it was a learning experience for me too)
July 1, 1867 AD: The Canadian Confederation is Established
The British North America Act of 1867, previously passed by the British Parliament and given royal assent by Queen Victoria on March 29, comes into effect, merging the Provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Canada into one political entity and granting them a degree of political autonomy hitherto unprecedented within the British Empire. The chief architects of the Act are George Brown, Hewitt Bernard, George-Étienne Cartier, and John A. MacDonald, all of whom attended the Quebec Conference in 1864 where the terms of confederation were negotiated.
Although largely an outgrowth of homegrown nationalist sentiment, the British North America Act is also in part a reaction to developments to the south, in the United States. Alarmed by the violent American Civil War, Canadian nationalists reject any precept of republicanism, instead resting the mantle of Canadian national sovereignty upon the British monarch. "[The American president] is never looked up to by the whole people as the head and front of the nation," says MacDonald. "He is at best but the successful leader of a party... We avoid this by adhering to the monarchical principle—the sovereign whom you respect and love."