Ten confirmed and 12 more suspected cases of Polio in children have been identified in Syria. Most of the cases are younger than the age of 2; before the war, Syria had a 95% vaccination rate.

Officials speculate that the source of the outbreak may be Jihadi fighters from Pakistan. Other than Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria are the only other countries where Polio is still endemic.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/30/wor…

Polio has long been in the sights of the World Health Organization for eradication. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative had originally the goal of having it eradicated by the year 2000, but local conditions in the remaining countries have made the final eradication more difficult. The current goal is eradication by 2018.

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanin…